No, all beacons are based on Bluetooth LE that, in turn, relies on Bluetooth being switched on in the phone. There’s no magic underling OS mechanism on iOS nor Android that uses Bluetooth without the user having Bluetooth on.
However, more users are leaving their Bluetooth on due to the proliferation of connecting with other devices such as cars and Bluetooth audio devices. As at the time of writing this there’s evidence that up to 50% of people leave Bluetooth turned on.
The phone and beacon industries need to better educate users that Bluetooth is no longer the heavy battery drainer it was in the early days of smartphones.