We recently came across a Python library, BeaconTools, for working with various types of Bluetooth LE Beacon. It supports iBeacon, Eddystone and Estimote beacons, extracting information from raw binary beacon advertisements. It can also work as a beacon scanner.
There’s a growing number of operating systems for microcontrollers on single board computers, most of which can scan for Bluetooth LE devices such as beacons and connect to them via GATT for setup and extraction of data. Zerynth is now one such OS that you can program using Python. Zerynth r2.2.0 update allows use of Bluetooth LE.