The BBC had a piece last night on the use of social distancing beacons at Florence Cathedral in Italy.
The beacons are worn by visitors and vibrate and flash when people get too close to one another. The reporter, Mark Lowen, said that it was the first use of the devices which might be true of that device model but not of social distancing devices in general.
He looks into the variation of Bluetooth received signal strength (RSSI) due to different types of obstruction such as walls and the human body. He explains how RSSI is being used in contact tracing apps and asks whether it’s possible to have false positives when there’s wall between smartphones or false negatives when people are close together but blocked by their bodies.
David used a Raspberry Pi as a Bluetooth emitter and a smartphone as a receiver, situated 1 metre apart and placed various obstacles between them. He found that drywall and stud walls were ineffective at reducing Bluetooth signal strength. Conversely, human bodies drastically reduce Bluetooth signals.
Smart watches might be possible candidates for more accurate contact tracing as they are less obstructed by the body when worn on the wrist
It’s well known that human bodies block Bluetooth. We have an article that explains how this phenomenon can even be used to infer direction.
What David didn’t do was test at different levels of power output. We assume he just used full power which will go through walls. Solutions such as our CATT use lower power predominantly to save battery life but also because there’s no need to transmit further. There’s are also factors at play in a smartphone app such as the variance of signal power across transmitting smartphone, the variance in the ability of different smartphones to receive the signal and the ability (or not) of smartphones to be able to transmit and receive in background when the app isn’t showing/running. These factors make app based contact tracing even more unreliable. Stand alone devices, such as smart watches mentioned by David, work better.
Theatre and performing arts are currently going through a crisis as theatres remain closed but are still experiencing ongoing costs with no income. Performers are juggling new jobs to make ends meet. In the UK alone there’s a projected £74bn drop in revenue for the creative industries and the loss of 400,000 jobs. There’s a growing realisation that the Covid pandemic is going to be with us for a long time. Even when there’s a vaccine, it will take a long time to manufacture, only provide for gradual vaccination and probably require seasonal re-vaccination much like flu.
With this in mind, once theatres are allowed to re-open, they will have to adapt to the new normal. Andrew Lloyd Webber’s pilot performances are leading the way with improvements in hygiene, social distancing, temperature testing, mandatory face masks and special anti-viral sprays.
The Grand Theatre in Blackpool has a new article on the Future of Theatre In A Digital World. It describes new innovations that will improve the customer journey as well as provide for more automated contact-less engagement required for coping with the Covid crisis.
The aim is to integrate all systems to improve the customer experience, raise more online reviews and gain customer feedback. This starts with smart booking of theatre tickets through smartphones, watches and home speakers. Tickets reside on your smartphone with associated useful information such as casting biographies, announcements, behind the scenes photos/videos, reviews, cast introductions, offers and vouchers. This will allow for faster returns and seating updates. eVouchers allow contactless use of entry gates, concession areas, car parking passes, public transport tickets and pre-paid taxis.
It has been an enormously challenging time for so many organisations during the COVID-19 lockdown. Many are now scrambling to implement new measures within their business to help safeguard workers health and avoid further disruption and shutdowns.
With Governments worldwide issuing and updating guidance on a regular basis, many businesses are turning to technology experts for practical easy to implement solutions in the longer term fight against the virus.
Here, we learn how Bluetooth Beacon technologies, such as BeaconZone CATT, are being deployed to safeguard the health and wellbeing of both employees and customers, and can help get your business back on track.
All employers have a duty of care to ensure their workplace is safe for workers to return to, by mitigating risks and implementing Government issued COVID-19 guidance. Each business will encounter its own challenges in meeting both current requirements and potential needs for renewed restrictions and lockdowns, dependent on business environments, employee numbers, industry and activities. This requires, in many instances, huge shifts in business thinking, models and processes.
There is no doubt that being flexible and open to new ways of working will help make such changes more successful. As well as stringent cleaning and hygiene measures, social distancing is perhaps the biggest challenge, requiring behavioural as well as practical changes and consideration across all aspects of your business.
Installing screens and barriers to physically separate people has its merits but is not, in many circumstances practical, which is why many employers and organisations are turning to alert, track and trace technologies for help.
Bluetooth beacon technologies, already widely used in many business applications, from logistics and asset management to location-based gaming, marketing and events management, temperature and humidity monitoring and many more, are a game changer in supporting businesses in their fight against COVID-19, including:
Social Distancing:Standalone social distancing devices and tracking systems, such as BeaconZone CATT, provide an easy to implement and practical solution to help and remind your workers to retain social distancing with a range of wearables, including wristbands and lanyards that flash and vibrate when social distancing is infringed. Data collected and synced through management stations empower your managers to effectively monitor, report and resolve repeated infringements and manage and mitigate further risks and non-compliance.
Staff Locating: Systems such as BeaconRTLS™, previously mainly used in factories and warehouses, are now being used more in COVID-19 Risk Assessments to determine the location of staff and occupancy of buildings. What might have seemed to be an invasion of privacy is now seen as something desirable to help ensure the safety of workers and audit compliance to government and industry-specific guidelines.
Lone Working: There has been an increase in the use of beacons providing touch-free ‘check-in’ for workers and for SOS. This includes use of gateways to automatically know when a worker has been at a specific locations, full locating systems and control centre systems such as TRBOnet. These systems allow a button to be pressed by the worker when, for example, there’s a medical emergency, threat to life or in customer facing scenarios, a potentially abusive situation. Such systems assist in complying with government lone worker regulations as well as provide peace of mind for both the employee as well as the employer.
Process Change: As many businesses are reviewing and implementing new processes to safeguard the safety of their workers and customers, finding ways to make these more onerous tasks more efficient will be critical to business success. A great example is the huge challenges the hospitality industry is facing with cafes and restaurants increasingly adopting beacon technology to identify tables for use in app-based ordering of food.
Benefits of Beacons
Beacon CATT is a standalone Bluetooth solution which can be easily deployed and is scalable for your business. It has been designed to be a one-off investment and requires no additional hardware or WiFi, Ethernet or cellular connection. You can be assured that performance is reliable and data is secured within your own business with ongoing support and help form our expert advisors.
Our solutions are increasing in demand and helping organisations get back to business post COVID-19 lockdown, including:
Staff Locating – While our BeaconRTLS™ was previously mainly used in factories and warehouses, it is now being used more to determine the location of staff and occupancy of buildings. What might have seemed to be an invasion of privacy is now seen as something desirable to help ensure the safety of workers and audit compliance to industry-specific guidelines.
As offices and sites re-open and people go back to work, it’s necessary to introduce social distancing measures in the workplace. We are hearing of factories being shut down after site-specific infection. Poor social distancing measures ultimately jeopardises the continuity of work in your organisation.
No matter what measures you put in place there will be some workers who flout the guidelines and others who are so engrossed in work that they forget about social distancing.
Social distance wristbands and lanyard wearable devices remind workers to maintain social distancing. Complete solutions allow close contact events to be taken off the distance wristband each day to audit compliance and if necessary, perform contact tracing.
With restaurants and pubs here in the UK scrambling to reopen this weekend, they need to find ways to provide self-service and minimise contact with staff. It’s interesting to see what was considered a ‘future restaurant’ in 2014 makes much more sense today:
The concept restaurant at Eggcellent in Tokyo used iBeacons for the location aspects together with smartglasses, augmented reality and gesture interfaces. An Engadget article covered the restaurant in more detail.
The UK NHS has just released the Android and iOS source code for the UK NHS Covid-19 contact tracking app. This is the code used before the recent switch to the Google/Apple mechanism.
The iOS readme explains how it works:
Our unique identifier is also known as our service characteristic. In the Bluetooth spec, devices can broadcast the availability of services. Each service can have multiple characteristics. We use a characteristic to uniquely identify our service and distinguish from all other sorts of Bluetooth devices. For every device we find with a matching characteristic, we record an identifier for the device we saw, the timestamp, and the RSSI of the Bluetooth signal, which will allow a team later on to determine who was in close proximity to individuals infected with the novel coronavirus
Google and Apple have implemented a new API to allow contact tracing apps to work well on iOS and Android. Some Governments, such as ours in the UK, have currently gone their own way with apps that use existing APIs. Such aforementioned restrictions stop smartphones seeing each other thus severely reducing their effectiveness. The apps won’t work properly and will provide very limited benefit.
We have had people ask how social distancing beacons such as distance bands differ to ordinary beacons. Normally, beacons send out (called advertising) Bluetooth signals that are received (called scanning) by apps on smartphones or Bluetooth gateways:
There’s no actual connection taking place. One side is repeatedly sending while the other is listening.
For social distancing, the beacons advertise AND scan:
Each beacon is repeatedly sending out an id and listening for others. Again, no connection takes place. When beacon receives scan data, it also sees the signal strength which can be used to infer the distance and hence whether the remote beacon is within the social distancing distance.
Beacons can store the id, signal strength and time. This can be extracted later via connection from another device such as a smartphone or gateway.