There’s a new command line Python-based utility for Linux called Bleah that describes itself as a “BLE scanner for smart devices hacking”. Don’t let the ‘hacking’ part put you off – all it does is scan for devices and enumerate/use Bluetooth GATT Service much like the many apps for iOS and Android like Nordic nRF Connect. Nevertheless, it’s useful should you need to do these things from Linux rather than mobile apps.
If you use this utility (or mobile apps) you need to be aware that most Beacons are not connectable by default and most have password protected Bluetooth Services preventing you writing to them without having written the password to a specific Service. You will need to read the documentation for the beacon to determine how to make it connectable and to ascertain the default password.