Fingerprinting Positioning Using Multiple Advertising Slots

There’s interesting research from Spain on Multi-Slot BLE Raw Database for Accurate Positioning in Mixed Indoor/Outdoor Environments. It looks into fingerprinting with beacons simultaneously advertising six slots rather than one slot.

Fingerprinting is where you first measure the signal levels at various known points and then later compare new data with the old to work out the position. This is usually performed with one signal from each beacon. The researchers increased this to six signals to attempt to improve positional accuracy.

Tests were performed at the campus of the University of Extremadura in Badajoz in the Physics and Mathematics buildings and also outside. Beacons were set up to transmit four slots using the Eddystone protocol and two using the iBeacon protocol. Different transmit powers were used for each slot. Measurements were performed using three different smartphones with a custom developed Android application. The resultant data is available on Zonodo.

The researchers compared a simple Nearest Neighbours algorithm (NN) using all the slots, the one slot with the highest transmission power and the average of all slots from the same beacon. The results showed that using all the slots or just one per beacon gives similar results for accuracy, floor, and Tag ID recognition. Results using the averaged values increased the accuracy by 10%.