There’s new research on BLE Beacons in the Smart City: Applications, Challenges, and Research Opportunities.
The paper explains how BLE beacons are a promising solution for many smart city applications. It describes BLE beacons, protocols, competing wireless technologies and the types of applications.
The paper covers some applications such as proximity marketing, indoor navigation and location based services.
Security and privacy issues are also mentioned such as cracking, spoofing and piggybacking.